From Thomas Jefferson’s “All men are created equal” to John F. Kennedy’s “Ask not what your country can do for you — ask what you can do for your country,” simple words strung together in distinctive ways have the power to move people. But imagine if Jefferson instead said, “Each person is not worse than the next,” or Kennedy rephrased to “Don’t just take for yourself but give to your country” — would these quotes have become just as famous?

從托馬斯·杰斐遜的“人人生而平等”,到約翰·F·肯尼迪的“不要問國家能為你做些什么,而要問你能為國家做些什么”,寥寥數語,字字珠璣,擁有足以叩問人心的力量。想象一下,如果杰斐遜說的是:“每個人都不比別人差?!被蛘呖夏岬系哪蔷湓挀Q成“別總想著給自己撈好處,應該為國家多做貢獻?!边€會像原話那樣變成四海流傳的名言嗎?

People’s word choices can reveal such things as their mental health, ability to persuade or even if they’ll default on a loan. A company’s choice of pronouns can affect a customer’s experience and whether it will lead to a purchase. Words used by the media influence how the public thinks about social issues like casino gambling. And the placement of gender — men and women vs. women and men — affect whom the reader believes is on top.

遣詞造句透露了一個人的精神健康狀況、說服他人的能力,甚至可以預測這個人有沒有可能欠賬。一家公司對人稱代詞的選擇會影響客戶體驗,決定著顧客是否會購買產品。媒體的選詞影響著公眾對社會問題的看法,比如對賭場的態度。性別詞匯的先后順序,比如是男女還是女男,影響著讀者對何人處于支配位置的判斷。

“The whole world of text analysis is so exciting,” said James Pennebaker, psychology professor at the University of Texas at Austin who co-developed the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) system, which is widely used for text analysis. He said word analysis is more reliable than asking people to document what they are thinking or feeling because these “self-reports are poorly related to real world behaviors.”

“文本分析這個領域總是驚喜不斷?!钡驴怂_斯大學心理學教授彭尼貝克是語言查詢與字數統計系統的開發者之一。這個系統被廣泛用于文本分析。他表示,詞匯分析比直接讓人們把自己的所思所想所感記錄下來可靠得多。因為“自我描述與他在真實世界中的行為關聯不大?!?

“Self-reports are self-theories. They are theories about who we think we are,” continued Pennebaker, a keynote speaker at the conference. People cling to certain narratives about themselves and as such, “to change a self-theory is really hard. That is why language [analysis] is interesting.” Language betrays what the speaker or writer is truly feeling, even on a subconscious level, much like a Freudian slip betrays one’s real thoughts.

彭尼貝克也是本次大會的主旨發言人。他說:“自述(self-reports)屬于自我取向(self-theories)。這些取向反映了我們自認為是誰?!毕胍淖償⑹稣邔ψ晕业恼J知很困難?!跋胍淖冏晕胰∠蛘娴暮茈y。這也是語言分析的有趣之處?!闭Z言背叛了說話者或者作者的真實感受,甚至是下意識層面的感受,就像弗洛伊德式錯誤,背叛了一個人真正的想法。

Today, as social media, mobile apps and web technologies fuel an explosion of virtual conversations, text analysis is having a field day. “This is the beauty of Big Data,” Pennebaker said. “It’s allowing us to see things we haven’t seen before.”

今天,作為社交媒體的移動應用、網絡技術為虛擬對話的爆炸式增長大開方便之門。文本分析在這種背景下可謂正當時?!斑@就是大數據之美?!迸砟嶝惪苏f:“我們由此可知以前所不知的東西?!?

The importance of word choices, as well as how words are frxd, is exemplified by their ability to influence public debates, with widespread implications for society. Lillian Lee, a professor at Cornell University interested in natural language processing and social interaction, cited as an example the words used in the debate over genetically modified foods.

遣詞造句有著影響公眾議題的能力,會對社會產生深遠的影響,這更凸顯了它的重要性??的螤柎髮W的李教授主要從事自然語言加工與社會互動研究。她引用了關于轉基因食品爭論中的一些詞匯。
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Supporters call it a “green revolution,” connoting sustainability, which is a good thing. But detractors call it “Frankenfood,” framing it in terms of an out-of-control monster created by science. “There are people putting a lot of thought into trying to use phrasing to get the public to think about issues a certain way,” Lee said. “Public opinion matters.”

支持者將之稱為“綠色革命”,令人聯想到可持續發展,這是積極的事情。但唱衰者則稱其為“弗蘭肯食物”,將轉基因食品塑造成科學手段制造出來的失控的怪物?!坝泻芏嗳速M盡心思地摳字眼,就想引導公眾往某個方向想?!崩钫f:“公眾意見很重要?!?

Ashlee Humphreys, a journalism professor at Northwestern University, took three decades’ worth of archived articles from the nation’s largest newspapers to understand why public outrage over casino gambling has changed over time.

西北大學新聞學教授漢弗萊斯則翻出30年以來的報紙存檔,從國內發行量最大的報紙入手,研究公眾對賭場的態度為何從一開始的極為反感發生了變化。

When the idea first arose of cities building casinos as a revenue generator, people were concerned that it would lead to mass gambling addictions and increased crime in their neighborhoods. To gauge sentiment, she analyzed categories of words used in the stories at the time. Words such as ethical, bible and law signified ‘purity’; guilty, illegal, arrested and sin, denoted ‘filth’; junket, limo and yacht signaled ‘wealth’; welfare, slum and ghetto spoke of ‘poverty.’

當年,政府剛剛提出通過修建賭場增加收入時,人們擔心會引起普遍的賭博成癮現象,增加周邊犯罪發生率。為探查當時公眾的情緒,漢弗萊斯對當時相關報道的用詞進行了分類研究。諸如倫理、圣經、法度等詞傳達的是“純凈”;而犯罪、非法、逮捕和罪惡等詞則是在表達“污穢”;公費旅游、豪華轎車、游艇傳遞“財富”的意思;福利、貧民窟、貧民區則是“貧窮”的代言詞。

Over time, the use of ‘filth’ words decreased. “People were no longer talking about casino gambling in terms of good and evil,” Humphreys said. The news story became more about local governments raising tax revenue from casinos. “A more ‘rational’ discourse took hold as the ‘purity’ and ‘filthy’ discourse waned and was about on par with ‘wealth’ and ‘poverty,’” she said. “As this happened, casinos became more legitimate.”

隨著時間的推移,“污穢”一類的用詞越來越少?!叭藗儾辉偬崞鹳€場是好的或者是壞的了?!睗h弗萊斯說。新聞中關于當地政府通過賭場增加稅收的報道多了起來?!耙环N更為‘理性’的話語占了上風,關于‘純凈’或‘污穢’的話語則日漸衰落。關于‘財富’和‘貧窮’的話語則各占一半?!彼f:“這樣一來,賭場的合理性就基本確立了?!?

Humphreys also looked at the declining public outrage around oil spills. She looked at the massive 2010 BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico (which spawned a movie called Deepwater Horizon). Right after the spill, BP’s stock dropped by 40%, public support for offshore drilling fell, and consumer confidence also dipped.

漢弗萊斯還關注了公眾對原油泄漏問題的憤怒逐漸平息的過程。她研究了2010年BP石油公司在墨西哥灣發生大規模原油泄漏事故一事(經由此事故改編成影片《深海浩劫》)。泄露發生之初,BP股價重挫40%,公眾對遠洋鉆探的支持度猛跌,消費者信心指數也一落千丈。

Two years later, people forgot about the spill and sentiment recovered. Overall oil production also exceeded pre-accident levels. BP’s stock price rebounded to 80% of its pre-spill value, and public support for off-shore drilling went back to near pre-accident levels. Consumer trust in the energy industry came back as well.

兩年之后,人們將此次泄露事故拋在腦后,各種情緒得以平復。原油產量甚至超過了事故發生前水平。BP股價重回泄露前股價的80%,公眾對遠洋石油鉆探的支持度也基本回升到事故發生前水平。消費者對能源產業的信心指數也良好回升。
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“The question is, why did this happen? Why didn’t people stay upset?” Humphreys asked. “What media narratives are used to explain and contain these fears?” To find the answer, she compared news coverage of the BP oil spill to the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989 in Alaska. With Exxon, the “cultural narratives and public templates had to be worked out — how do you deal with such a disaster? This kept Exxon in the news much longer.”

“問題是為什么會這樣?為什么人們的憤憤不平沒有一直持續下去?”漢弗萊斯問道:“如何利用媒體的話語來解讀和控制各種擔憂?”為了找到答案,她對BP原油泄漏事件的新聞報道和1989年??松ね郀柕掀澨栐诎⒗辜拥氖托孤┦录蟮肋M行了對比。在??松录?,“文化敘述和公共模板不同:你們要如何應對此類災難?這也導致??松录谛侣剤蟮乐型A舻臅r間長得多?!?

With BP, the media brought up the consequences of past oil spills — such as lawsuits and government fines for Exxon — and then closed the issue. “A year out, nobody was talking about oil anymore. That’s not where the discourse moved,” Humphreys said. News coverage shifted to containing the spill, investigating the causes of the accident and focusing on the folks responsible.

而到了BP事件中,媒體提到了此前石油泄漏事件的一些后果,比如??松竟偎纠p身、政府罰款等等,然后這事情就算畫上了句號?!安怀鲆荒?,沒人再談論原油泄漏了。話語并沒有向這個領域引導?!睗h弗萊斯說道。新聞報道的重點轉向如何控制泄露范圍、調查事故發生原因,以及誰該為此負責。

Something similar is happening to public opinion about the legalization of marijuana. Pot is currently legally cleared for medical use in 30 states and recreational use in eight states, Humphreys said. The image of marijuana users is slowly changing, from lazy stoners to health buffs as the plant is increasingly being incorporated into legitimate products like chocolate bars and body butters. “We see growing emergence, acceptance,” she said.

公眾對于大麻合法化的看法也有比較類似的變化。漢弗萊斯介紹說,目前美國30個州的法律允許將大麻用于治療,8個州允許將其用于康復。而大麻使用者的形象也在緩慢的發生著變化:從懶惰的癮君子變成了健康專家。這是因為大麻這種東西越來越多地被作為合法產品的原料之一,比如巧克力棒、身體乳等等。她說:“我們看到,越來越多人對此表示接受?!?

Linguistic ordering of genders can also affect how the public views who is more powerful. According to research by Selin Kesebir, professor of organisational behaviour at the London Business School, if a man is mentioned before a woman, he is seen to be in a more dominant or central position — and vice versa.

性別詞匯在言語中的先后順序,也可能影響公眾對誰擁有更大權力的看法。倫敦商學院組織行為學教授凱斯博認為,如果先提到一名男性,后提到一名女性,那么這位男性似乎更可能處于支配地位或者比較核心的位置。反之亦然。

In an experiment, Kesebir showed two versions of a news article about townspeople protesting a power plant proposal. In one version, the story said “some of the town’s men and women are out on the streets.” The other version reversed the genders, “some of the town’s women and men are out on the streets.”

在一項實驗中,凱斯博拿出了兩篇新聞稿,內容都是關于小鎮居民抗議修建發電廠的事情。一篇報道中寫道:“該鎮一些男性和女性走上街頭?!绷硪黄獔蟮乐袆t將性別詞語做了個調換:“該鎮一些女性和男性走上街頭?!?

When readers were asked which gender played a more central role in the protest, 66% of those who read “men and women” chose the men. Among those who read the version with “women and men,” 71% said women played a more central role. These results have implications for how public perceptions can be influenced based on the placement of language.

研究人員詢問讀者,在抗議中是男性還是女性發揮了核心作用?讀到“男性和女性”的讀者中有66%選擇了男性。而讀到“女性和男性”的讀者中有71%認為女性發揮了更核心的作用。上述結果顯示,公眾認知可能會受到語序的影響。
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Word choice also has a profound impact on one’s ability to persuade, according to Cornell’s Lee. Being persuasive is a handy skill whether it is to prevail in business meetings or getting your kids to go to bed on time. Lee analyzed the posts and threads in an online debating forum called ChangeMyView on Reddit. Users would post opinions and explain why they hold these beliefs. Other people would post counter-arguments to try to change their minds. The successful post would be flagged with a delta symbol.

康奈爾大學的李教授認為,斟詞酌句關系到一個人是否具有說服他人的能力。無論是想在商業會議中占據優勢,還是讓孩子乖乖按時上床睡覺,說服力都是一項十分有用的技能。她對在線辯論論壇“在Reddit上改變我的觀點吧”上的帖子進行了一番分析。在這個論壇上,用戶可以發布觀點,解釋持有這種觀點的理由。其他人則可以發帖反駁,努力說服發帖者改變看法。成功改變別人看法的帖子會得到一個delta標志。

Lee discovered that successful counter-arguments are ones that provide new information, but were communicated in a style similar to the original writer of the post. “They told me something I didn’t know before,” she said. However, it does pay to know when to stop — people who kept arguing didn’t change minds. “Too much back and forth equals lost cause,” Lee said. “If you go on that long, stop talking. The kind of people who keep going that long aren’t necessarily the kind of people who are persuasive.”

李發現,成功反駁他人觀點的帖子都是那些提供了新的信息、但行文表達的方式與帖主類似的帖子?!八麄兏嬖V了我一些以前不知道的事情?!彼f到。知道何時停止非常重要。一直在和別人爭論的人,無法改變他人的觀點?!疤酄幷摃钊嗣允?。如果你們發展到那個地步,那就停止討論。一味咄咄逼人的人并不具有強大的說服力?!?

Paul DiMaggio, sociology professor at New York University, also looked at persuasiveness but in a corporate setting. He analyzed the discussions at a Fortune 500 company’s online conversation to brainstorm solutions to global challenges faced by the company. There was no anonymity — everyone had to register. Moderators did not remove or edit posts. Out of more than 31,000 comments only 282 were sexted for further development. Why were they singled out?

紐約大學社會學教授迪馬喬也對說服力進行過研究,只不過是在公司環境下。他分析了一家財富500強公司在線對話中的討論。這項活動旨在通過腦力激蕩為公司面臨的全球挑戰找到解決方案。這項活動不允許匿名參與,每個人都要注冊。組織者不會對帖子進行編輯或者刪帖。在超過3.1萬條評論中,只有282條被選出來等待進一步探討。那么,是什么因素讓這282條被選中呢?

By applying text analysis to the chosen comments, DiMaggio discovered that successful posts were of higher quality (longer, more thoughtful, generated more discussion, the writer took time to respond) or they were focused on core topics important to the company. There also was one unexpected finding: Successful posts tended to be ones that were different in style from executives. So mimicking the way the top brass talked didn’t work. He also found out that men were not favored, nor were executives.

迪馬喬通過對選中評論進行文本分析發現,成功入選的評論文字質量較高(更長、更有想法、能夠激發更多討論、發帖者會花時間耐心回復),或者緊扣公司的重要議題。另外,研究者還有一個意外發現:成功入選的帖子在行文風格上往往與高管不同。所以說,一味模仿老板的說話方式并不奏效。他發現,男性并沒有特別受到照顧,高管也沒有享受特殊待遇。

How about the discarded comments? DiMaggio discovered that hasty responses typically were not chosen. Posts that had a high level of excitement also didn’t get an edge. Displaying pride at being an employee had no bearing on being chosen. Responses from the U.S. also generally were not favored.

那么,那些被放棄的評論又是如何呢?迪馬喬發現,草草回復通常不會入選。奪人眼球的回復也不占優勢。表達成為公司員工而感到非常自豪的帖子也對入選沒有幫助。來自美國的回復一般也沒有特別受到關注。
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Another insight about words is that they can predict popular success. That’s a finding by Grant Packard, marketing professor at Wilfrid Laurier University in Canada, and Wharton marketing professor Jonah Berger. Packard presented results from their paper “Are Atypical Songs More Popular?” at the conference.

關于詞語的另一個洞見,則是可以通過詞匯的選擇預測某個事物的受歡迎程度。發現這一現象的是加拿大勞里埃大學市場營銷學教授帕卡德和沃頓商學院市場營銷學教授貝格爾。帕卡德在會上介紹了他們的研究報告“是否存在某類更受歡迎的歌曲?”

Their research used text analysis and natural language processing methods to determine why some songs become more popular than others. They pulled the lyrics of the top 50 Billboard songs for every three months spanning three years for each of the seven major genres (Christian, country, dance, pop, rap, rock and R&B). Their data set also included the artist, promotional activity and support, as well as radio airplay.

他們在研究中采用文本分析、自然語言處理方法,揭示為什么一些歌曲比其他歌曲更受人們的歡迎。他們按照7種音樂類型(福音、鄉村、舞曲、流行、說唱、搖滾、R&B)分類,鎖定3年內每三個月排名Billboard排行榜前50的歌曲,并把所有歌詞抽取出來。此外還將歌手、宣傳與支持、電臺播放情況等納入數據當中。

What they found was that songs that shot up the charts were more unique than other songs in the same genre. And it doesn’t take much: A 16% differentiation is enough to make a song move one notch up the charts. “Subtle variation in lyrical topics produces a relatively big incremental in commercial success,” Packard said. These results hold true even if the songs varied by artist, promotional activity and other factors.

他們發現,能夠上榜的歌曲在同類歌曲中具有比較鮮明的差異性,而做到這一點并不難:16%的差異化足以讓一首歌的排位上升一名?!霸诟柙~主題上的略微改變,就能取得相對明顯的商業成功?!迸量ǖ抡f道。而藝人、推廣活動等因素的差異,也能取得類似的效果。

However, songs cannot be too different or else they turn off the listener. “We look for novelty and experience,” Packard said. “We want things that are known to us but novel to make us engage further. It needs to fit with our experience but push us slightly away from it. … Novelty has to be distinguished by the bounds of our own experience.” For example, a blue rubber duck will attract people because it’s not the typical yellow — as long as it retains the shape and texture of the original.

但是,歌曲如果過于標新立異會嚇跑聽眾?!拔覀円骖檮撔屡c經驗?!迸量ǖ抡f:“我們喜歡熟悉的東西,新意則能讓我們繼續保持關注。歌曲需要符合人們的一般經驗,但同時又能帶給人以新鮮感……要在我們的現有經驗基礎上求新?!北热?,藍色橡皮鴨就很奪人眼球,因為它不是我們常見的黃色鴨子,但卻仍然保留了鴨子的外表形狀與紋路。

Lee came to a similar conclusion with another experiment she ran involving movie quotes. She tried to discover why certain movie quotes go viral while others are forgettable. Lee found out that “on average, memorable quotes significantly contain more surprising combination of words. … When things are unusual, people remember them.” However, the sentences tend to be simpler in structure. For instance, she said, “you’re gonna need a bigger boat” is more memorable than “you’re going to need a boat that is bigger.”

李則通過對電影臺詞的研究得出了類似的結論。她希望了解為什么某些影片的某句臺詞會變成流行語,而其它的則會被遺忘。她發現“平均來說,讓人印象深刻的臺詞基本上都會包含一些令人意想不到的詞語組合……人們總是傾向于記住不尋常的東西?!钡?,這些爆款臺詞的結構一般都比較簡潔。比如,“你需要一艘大點兒的船?!笨隙ū取澳阈枰凰掖?,大一點的那種?!备茏屓擞涀?。

Emotional volatility also predicts how movies will fare, according to other research by Berger. He studied movie scenes and plotted their emotional trajectory using text analysis and natural language processing. He discovered that movies that are more emotionally volatile — they have higher peaks and lower lows — overall get higher ratings. Berger said that a 10% increase in emotional volatility translates to a 1% increase in ratings. However, he cautioned that if a movie whipsaws audiences too often with highs and lows, it backfires. Viewers get exhausted.

貝格爾的另一項研究還顯示,情感波動性也能預測影片是否賣座。貝格爾利用文本分析和自然語言處理方法分析影片場景和情節,對影片的情感軌跡進行了研究。他發現影片如果在情感波動上體現得更加明顯,也就是更為跌宕起伏,一般來說會得到較高的評分。貝格爾說,增加10%的情感波動能夠將評分提升1%。但是他也警告說,如果電影故意制造太多的高潮和低谷,則會適得其反。觀眾會感到精疲力盡。

There’s also research showing that social media chatter can help predict a person’s mental and physical health. Lyle Ungar, professor of computer and information science at the University of Pennsylvania, parsed through troves of Facebook data to measure psychological traits. “How does language inform what we can learn about people?” he asked.

還有研究顯示,社交媒體上的閑聊內容能夠預測一個人的精神和身體健康水平。賓夕法尼亞大學計算機與信息科學教授昂加爾對臉書的數據進行了語言學分析,用來評估用戶的心理學特征?!叭绾瓮ㄟ^語言傳達的信息了解一個人?”他問到。

Words people use can predict their gender 92% of the time, Ungar said. For example, women tend to use the following words on Facebook more often: shopping, excited, “love you,” yay and birthday. Men tend to use more profanity as well as the words Xbox, girlfriend, war, YouTube and PS3. Words can also help pinpoint whether someone is extraverted: They use words or phrases like “can’t wait,” chillin, party, weekend, girls. Introverts favor anime, internet, manga, computer, sigh, Pokemon and others.

我們可以通過一個人使用的詞匯猜測此人的性別,準確率達到92%。比如,女性在臉書上更經常使用下列詞匯:購物、開心、“愛你”、耶以及生日。男性更經常使用褻瀆神靈、Xbox、女朋友、戰爭、油管以及PS3。言語還能幫我們判斷一個人是否外向:這一類人會使用“等不及啦”、輕松一下、聚會、周末、女孩等等。而內向的人則喜歡用動漫、網絡、漫畫、電腦、哎、口袋妖怪之類的。

Word choice can also pinpoint mental health, Ungar discovered. More neurotic people tend to post online that they are “sick of” or hate something. Other words they use more often are kill, dead, bloody, alone, bored and stupid. Less neurotic people talk about religion and sports, use phrases such as “life is good” and “beautiful day,” and use words like beach, success, workout, soccer, church and blessed.

昂加爾還發現,詞語的選擇還能反映一個人的精神健康狀況。比較神經質的人會在網上表達“反感”、討厭某個事物。其他一些經常使用的詞包括:殺、死、血淋淋、獨自、沒勁、愚蠢等。而不太神經質的人會更多探討宗教和運動,使用“生活多么美好”、“美好的一天”等等,以及海灘、成功、健身、足球、教堂、保佑等詞匯。

People with high stress talk online about pain, anxiety, being tired, hurting, depression and headaches. Low-stress people convey enthusiasm about today, vacations, breakfast and being “pumped.” “Why is this useful? We can estimate people’s personality and how this personality correlates with behavior, such as showing up in the hospital” if they’re sick and being willing to take care of themselves, Ungar said.

壓力水平較高的人會在網絡上表達痛苦、焦慮、疲憊、受到傷害、壓抑、頭疼。壓力較少的人會傳遞樂觀,提到度假、早飯以及“充滿能量”?!盀槭裁凑f這些分析很有用?因為我們可以據此預測他人的性格,以及這種性格與行為有何關聯,比如去醫院看病,或者愿意好好照顧自己等等,”昂加爾說道。

Another business application of text analysis is predicting cultural fit. Amir Goldberg, professor of organizational behavior at Stanford University, used text analysis to examine what makes an employee fit in better with an organization. Specifically, he tested to see which trait was better for the employee: perceptual accuracy — the ability to accurately read the corporate culture — or value congruence, the worker’s personality being already similar to the company’s culture. (For instance, a Type A personality would fit in with a hard-charging, driven company.)

文本分析在商業上的另一個應用是預測文化契合度。斯坦福大學組織行為學教授戈爾德貝格利用文本分析來考察員工如何才能更好地融入組織。具體來說,他測試的是什么才是更理想的員工性格:認知精確性,也就是能夠精確解讀公司文化的能力;還是價值觀契合度,即員工性格與企業文化本身就很類似。(例如,A型人格很可能適合一家進取心強的公司。)

For his research, Goldberg looked through seven years of emails sent and received by more than 1,200 employees at a midsized U.S. tech firm. He used linguistic models to measure behavioral fit. Goldberg found out that the ability to accurately read the corporate culture and adjust one’s linguistics accordingly makes an employee a better fit. “Perceptual accuracy is more consequential for the ability to read the cultural code and behave compliantly than value congruence,” he said. “Peers matter. Culture is learned from those with whom one interacts.”

戈爾德貝格在研究中對一家美國中型科技企業7年以來1200多名員工收發的電子郵件進行了調查。他采用語言學模型對員工的行為契合度進行評測并發現:能夠精確解讀公司文化、并相應調整自己遣詞造句的能力,會讓員工更好地融入公司?!罢J知精確性比價值觀契合度更能影響員工對公司文化的解碼能力和隨之產生的行為?!彼f:“同事很重要。文化是在與人互動的過程中學習的?!?br />